Jongeneel et al. (2007) and Jongeneel et al. (2008)
The historic roots of agricultural protectionism in Europe are deep - going back to the 19th century. Agriculture is not special in itself but a classical example of special interests defending their rents to the detriment of collective welfare.
It is often believed that subsidies that fall into the WTO’s Green Box are indeed 'green' or otherwise legitimate, and that the Single Farm Payment and the second pillar of the CAP deserve this stamp of approval. That's not true - here is why.
How does the CAP affect poverty and hunger abroad? Prof. Alan Matthews observes improvements in EU policy, such as the reduction of export subsidies and tariff-free market access for least developed countries. But further steps are necessary if trade is to develop its full potential in the struggle for global food security.
Patrick Jomini, Pierre Boulanger, Xiao-Guang Zhang, Catherine Costa and Michelle Osborne, Groupe d'Economie Mondiale (GEM), 2009
European Court of Auditors, 2007