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12.11.2009 Studies
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Study on the Development and Marketing of Non-Market Forest Products and Services

EFIMED et al., 2008


  • Valuation of public goods provided by forests (including discussion of valuation methods for public goods, overview of valuation studies for forests, their own questionnaire)
  • Policies to promote public goods provided by forests (including overview, case studies and assessment)


  • The questionnaire shows 1) that biodiversity protection ranks highest, 2) that environmental and recreational services are valued higher than the more remote services occasionally brought forward to justify the CAP (aesthetic, historical, educational, spiritual and cultural services) and 3) that public goods are valued differently across Europe.
  • A great variety of policies exist to promote public goods (including private arrangements between forest owners and water utilities or tourist industries). Tax exemptions to compensate forest owners for restrictions on the use of their land and direct subsidies are the most frequently used instruments.


  • Public goods provided by forests should receive much more attention. This would mitigate the fears over land abandonment (the alternative to agriculture is not the disappearance of land but usually natural or managed afforestation). And it would show that one additional euro spent on public goods from forests will most likely yield higher returns to society than one euro spent on agriculture (a study comparing marginal benefits from subsidies in forestry and agriculture would be desirable).